|Subtidal algal colonization following the removal of Echinus|Jones, N.S.; Kain, J.M. (1967). Subtidal algal colonization following the removal of Echinus. Helgol. Wiss. Meeresunters. 15(1-4): 460-466. dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01618642
In: Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen. Biologische Anstalt Helgoland: Hamburg. ISSN 0017-9957, more
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- Jones, N.S.; Kain, J.M. (1967). Subtidal algal colonization following the removal of Echinus, in: Kinne, O. et al. (Ed.) Vorträge und Diskussionen. Erstes Europäisches Symposion über Meeresbiologie = Papers and discussions. First European Symposium on Marine Biology = Rapports et discussions. Premier symposium européen sur biologie marine. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 15(1-4): pp. 460-466. dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01618642, more
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1. On the seaward face of Port Erin breakwater large algae do not occur on the lowest three metres. Here the density ofEchinus esculentus is high.2. Over a three year period allEchinus were removed from a 10 m wide strip at about monthly intervals. The total number of individuals removed approached 3000.3. One year after initial clearance the mean density ofLaminaria hyperborea sporelings on the strip was 22.7/m2 and 5.1/m2 to one side of it. By the winter these had almost disappeared outside the strip and in the succeeding years second and third year plants were found only on the strip or close to its edge. Other algae were similarly affected.4. It is concluded that the lower limit ofL. hyperborea is determined at least in part by the grazing pressure ofEchinus and that the urchins exercise some control over the numbers of other algae.