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|Missing and presumed lost: extinction in the ocean and its inference|Smith, W.K.; Solow, A.R. (2012). Missing and presumed lost: extinction in the ocean and its inference. ICES J. Mar. Sci./J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer 69(1): 89-94. dx.doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsr176
In: ICES Journal of Marine Science. Academic Press: Oxford. ISSN 1054-3139, more
Benthic communities; Species extinction; Statistical sampling; A, Atlantic [gazetteer]; Marine
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The number of modern extinctions in the ocean is unknown. The actual demise of the last individual of a species is essentially unobservable, so extinction can only be inferred. Statistical methods are described for inferring extinction from sighting records, species–area considerations, and taxonomic samples collected at two different times. The methods are illustrated using a variety of real datasets, including a sighting record of the Caribbean monk seal and results from three surveys of benthic invertebrates.