|Early development of the cephalic skeleton in the turbot|In: Journal of Fish Biology. Fisheries Society of the British Isles: London,New York,. ISSN 0022-1112, more
Pleuronectiformes [WoRMS]; Scophthalmidae Chabanaud, 1933 [WoRMS]; Scophthalmus Rafinesque, 1810 [WoRMS]; Marine
postembryonic development; skeleton; Pleuronectiforms; metamorphosis; Scophthalmidae; Scophthalmus
|Authors|| || Top |
- Wagemans, F., more
- Focant, B.
- Vandewalle, P., more
At hatching Scophthalmus maximus shows no cartilaginous and no bony structure. Meckels cartilages appear when the fry are 1 day old, followed on day 2, by formation of the trabecular bars, fused at the outset to form a trabecula communis. Concurrently, the palatoquadrates complete the mandibular arch, and the first two pairs of ceratobranchials, associated with a pair of hyoid bars, form the beginnings of the hyobranchial system. By day 3, the parachordals have fused with the trabecular bars, the hyosymplectics have linked to the hyoid bars by interhyals, and the first four pairs of ceratobranchials have appeared. The first bony structures appear: the preoperculars. On day 8, the frontals develop above the orbits and the maxillaries and dentaries appear. On day 10, the primordia of the taeniae marginales appear, the palatoquadrates bear a pterygoid process, and to the branchial basket have been added the fifth pair of ceratobranchials and the four pairs of epibranchials. On day 12, both pairs of posterior pharyngobranchials are present. The premaxillaries develop in front of the maxillaires, and retroarticulars and the angulars complete the lower jaws. On day 13, a thin parasphenoid contributes to the floor of the neurocranium, and ectopterygoids and entopterygoids to the splanchnocranium. The set of opercular bones is complete. On day 15, the tectum synoticum closes the braincase posteriorly. The splanchnocranium possesses a basihyal and the pharyngobranchials of the first epibranchials. On day 18, the tectum posterius completes the dome of the braincase. The rear end and lateral walls of the skull are formed by the basioccipital, the exoccipitals, the pterotics, and the parietals. The suspensorium is nearly complete. From day 10, the first resorptions begin in parallel with the construction of the chondrocranium. Meckels cartilages each split in two, then the posterior part of the trabecular bars disappears. On day 23, the right taenia marginalis separates from the lamina orbitonasalis and curves towards the centre. Simultaneously, the right eye begins its migration to the left. This is the only metamorphosis-linked asymmetry to appear during the development of the chondrocranium. On day 25, many more bony structures appear, a characteristic of this stage: the nasals, lateral ethmoids, mesethmoid, sphenotics, prootics, pleurosphenoids, epiotics, and supraoccipital. From this stage on, the bony structures continue to develop, while the front of the neurocranium and the jaws undergo a deep remodelling due to metamorphosis. The left taenia marginalis does not appear reduced until day 29. By day 45, there remain only a few small elements of the cartilaginous skull.