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Adaptive prolonged postreproductive life span in killer whales
Foster, E.A.; Franks, D.W.; Mazzi, S.; Darden, S.K.; Balcomb, K.C.; Ford, J.K.B.; Croft, D.P. (2012). Adaptive prolonged postreproductive life span in killer whales. Science (Wash.) 337(6100): 1313
In: Science (Washington). American Association for the Advancement of Science: New York, N.Y. ISSN 0036-8075, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

Keywords
    Life span; Parturition; Orcinus orca (Linnaeus, 1758) [WoRMS]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Foster, E.A.
  • Franks, D.W.
  • Mazzi, S.
  • Darden, S.K.
  • Balcomb, K.C.
  • Ford, J.K.B.
  • Croft, D.P.

Abstract
    Prolonged life after reproduction is difficult to explain evolutionarily unless it arises as a physiological side effect of increased longevity or it benefits related individuals (i.e., increases inclusive fitness). There is little evidence that postreproductive life spans are adaptive in nonhuman animals. By using multigenerational records for two killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations in which females can live for decades after their final parturition, we show that postreproductive mothers increase the survival of offspring, particularly their older male offspring. This finding may explain why female killer whales have evolved the longest postreproductive life span of all nonhuman animals.

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