Poty, E.; Hance, L. (2006). Livian. Geol. Belg. 9(1-2): 133-138
In: Geologica Belgica. Geologica Belgica: Brussels . ISSN 1374-8505, more
Livian, Middle Viséan, Carboniferous, Belgium, biostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, palaeogeography
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The Livian Substage is about 3-4 Ma long and was defined as corresponding to the Cf5 Foraminifer Zone by Conil et al., 1977 (= MFZ12 Zone of Devuyst & Hance, in Poty et al., in press). Its base is taken at the base of the "Banc d’or de Bachant"?, a bentonite capping the Moliniacian Neffe Formation (Fm). The top of the substage corresponds to the top of the Bay-Bonnet Member (Mbr) of the Grands-Malades Fm, below the appearance of the first foraminifers marking the base of the Warnantian Substage, at the base of the Thon-Samson Mbr (Bonne River Fm). The substage comprises the Lives Fm, including the Haut-le-Wastia, Corphalies and Awirs Mbrs, and the Grands-Malades Fm including the Seilles-Maizeret and Bay-Bonnet Mbrs. It is mainly composed of shallowing-upward parasequences which were deposited by aggradation on the shelf as suggested by their lateral regularity. The Livian Substage comprises the third-order sequence 7 (from the base of the Lives Fm to the top of the Seilles-Maizeret Mbrs) and the TST of the sequence 8 (Bay-Bonnet Mbr) of Hance et al. (2001). The Livian corresponds to the RC5g Coral Subzone and the RC6 Zone. The Livian can be correlated with the British Holkerian Substage.