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Physiological effects of waterborne lead exposure in spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias)
Eyckmans, M.; Lardon, I.; Wood, C.M.; De Boeck, G. (2013). Physiological effects of waterborne lead exposure in spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). Aquat. Toxicol. 126: 373-381. hdl.handle.net/10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.09.004
In: Aquatic Toxicology. Elsevier Science: Tokyo; New York; London; Amsterdam. ISSN 0166-445X, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 242190 [ OMA ]

Keywords
    Lead; Metals; Urea; Squalus acanthias Linnaeus, 1758 [WoRMS]; Marine
Author keywords
    Ion osmoregulation; Metal toxicity

Authors  Top 
  • Eyckmans, M., more
  • Lardon, I., more
  • Wood, C.M.
  • De Boeck, G., more

Abstract
    To broaden our knowledge about the toxicity of metals in marine elasmobranchs, cannulated spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) were exposed to 20 µM and 100 µM lead (Pb). Since we wanted to focus on sub lethal ion-osmoregulatory and respiratory disturbances, arterial blood samples were analysed for pHa, PaO2, haematocrit and total CO2 values at several time points. Plasma was used to determine urea, TMAO, lactate and ion concentrations. After 96 h, Pb concentrations were determined in a number of tissues, such as gill, rectal gland, skin and liver. To further investigate ion and osmoregulation, Na+/K+-ATPase activities in gill and rectal gland were analysed as well as rates of ammonia and urea excretion. Additionally, we studied the energy reserves in muscle and liver. Pb strongly accumulated in gills and especially in skin. Lower accumulation rates occurred in gut, kidney and rectal gland. A clear disturbance in acid–base status was observed after one day of exposure indicating a transient period of hyperventilation. The increase in pHa was temporary at 20 µM, but persisted at 100 µM. After 2 days, plasma Na and Cl concentrations were reduced compared to controls at 100 µM Pb and urea excretion rates were elevated. Pb caused impaired Na+/K+-ATPase activity in gills, but not in rectal gland. We conclude that spiny dogfish experienced relatively low ion-osmoregulatory and respiratory distress when exposed to lead, particularly when compared to effects of other metals such as silver. These elasmobranchs appear to be able to minimize the disturbance and maintain physiological homeostasis during an acute Pb exposure.

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