|Grazers on benthic seaweeds|
Iken, K.B. (2012). Grazers on benthic seaweeds, in: Wiencke, C. et al. (Ed.) Seaweed biology: Novel insights into ecophysiology, ecology and utilization. Ecological Studies, 219: pp. 157-175
In: Wiencke, C.; Bischof, K. (Ed.) (2012). Seaweed biology: Novel insights into ecophysiology, ecology and utilization. Ecological Studies, 219. Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Heidelberg. ISBN 978-3-642-28450-2. xiii, 510 pp., more
In: Heldmaier, G. et al. (Ed.) Ecological Studies. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0070-8356, more
Grazing is a major force structuring seaweed communities. Grazer–seaweed interactions are ecologically complex with important implications for seaweed standing biomass and community composition, the energy flow through the system, and higher trophic level predator–prey interactions. This chapter presents a summary of the vast amount of information on herbivore–seaweed interactions, focusing on key concepts illustrated with select examples. Grazer–seaweed interactions are first discussed from the grazer perspective, starting with several common classification systems of grazers based on their feeding mode, size, and diet specificity. This chapter then covers how grazers can impact seaweeds and seaweed communities in multiple ways, including mutualistic relationships between herbivores and seaweeds. Algal–herbivore interactions are then considered from the seaweed perspective, specifically types of algal defenses against grazing, such grazing tolerance and avoidance of herbivores, as well as structural and chemical defenses. The chapter ends with a brief consideration of potential climate change effects on grazer–seaweed interactions.