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Life on the edge: Parachnoidea (Ctenostomata) and Barentsia (Kamptozoa) on bathymodiolin mussels from an active submarine volcano in the Kermadec Volcanic Arc
Gordon, D.P. (2013). Life on the edge: Parachnoidea (Ctenostomata) and Barentsia (Kamptozoa) on bathymodiolin mussels from an active submarine volcano in the Kermadec Volcanic Arc, in: Ernst, A. et al. (Ed.) Bryozoan Studies 2010. Lecture Notes in Earth System Sciences, 143: pp. 75-89. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/978-3-642-16411-8_6
In: Ernst, A. et al. (Ed.) (2013). Bryozoan Studies 2010. Lecture Notes in Earth System Sciences, 143. Springer: Berlin. ISBN 978-3-642-16410-1. viii, 463 pp., more
In: Lecture Notes in Earth System Sciences. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 2193-8571, more

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Keywords
    Hydrothermal vents; Stroke; Barentsia Hincks, 1880 [WoRMS]; Bryozoa [WoRMS]; Entoprocta [WoRMS]; New Zealand [Marine Regions]; PSW, Kermadec Ridge; Marine

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  • Gordon, D.P.

Abstract
    Very few bryozoans have been reported from the vicinity of hot vents. Parachnoidea rowdeni n. sp. (Ctenostomata: Arachnidiidae) has been found associated with the bathymodiolin mussel Gigantidas gladius (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) from Rumble V seamount in the southern part of the Kermadec volcanic arc. The mussels exhibit high population densities at sulphur-rich hydrothermal springs on active submarine volcanoes at depths of 216–755 m. Seawater temperatures above the mussel beds are above ambient and dredge hauls containing the mussel include elemental sulphur and smell strongly of it. The mussel’s nutrition appears to involve chemosynthesis by the sulphur-oxidising symbiotic bacteria that are concentrated in its extremely enlarged gills. The colonies of Parachnoidea are partly encrusting, partly erect, forming tangles of stoloniform zooids above the shell surface. Newly formed zooids are transparent; older zooids have a dark coating of inorganic particles that include, inter alia, sulphur, iron and manganese. Growth and morphological attributes of P. rowdeni suggest that it may be a genuine vent-endemic bryozoan. An unidentified species of Barentsia is the first record of the phylum Kamptozoa from the vicinity of a hydrothermal vent.

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