|Occurrence and identity of “white spots” in Phylactolaemata|Gruhl, A. (2013). Occurrence and identity of “white spots” in Phylactolaemata, in: Ernst, A. et al. (Ed.) Bryozoan Studies 2010. Lecture Notes in Earth System Sciences, 143: pp. 91-103. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/978-3-642-16411-8_7
In: Ernst, A. et al. (Ed.) (2013). Bryozoan Studies 2010. Lecture Notes in Earth System Sciences, 143. Springer: Berlin. ISBN 978-3-642-16410-1. viii, 463 pp., more
In: Lecture Notes in Earth System Sciences. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 2193-8571, more
Confocal microscopy; Toxicity; Ultrastructure; Bryozoa [WoRMS]; Marine
Epidermal glands; Statoblast pore:;
Localised epidermal gland complexes of unknown function have previously been recognised as “white spots” in Pectinatella magnifica and Lophopodella carteri, but not in other phylactolaemate species. In this study a similar glandular organ is described for Lophopus crystallinus. It is a complex epidermal gland that consists of two types of gland cells, one of which contains light-refracting, possibly lipidic, vesicles. This gland is situated at the anal side of the duplicature, distal to a pore, which most likely resembles the vestibular or statoblast pore. Such a pore had always been postulated, but histological evidence was lacking so far. The most likely functions of the glandular organs could either be connected to statoblast expulsion or to chemical defence.