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Mode shift in the Indian Ocean climate under global warming stress
Nakamura, N.; Kayanne, H.; Ijima, H.; McClanahan, T. R.; Behera, S. K.; Yamagata, T. (2009). Mode shift in the Indian Ocean climate under global warming stress. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36: 5
In: Geophysical Research Letters. American Geophysical Union: Washington. ISSN 0094-8276, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords

Authors  Top 
  • Nakamura, N.
  • Kayanne, H.
  • Ijima, H.
  • McClanahan, T. R.
  • Behera, S. K.
  • Yamagata, T.

Abstract
    A 115-year coral record from Kenya has been found to preserve the history of rainfall anomalies in East Africa in relation to global warming-induced Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) variability. The coral IOD index demonstrates a dominantly decadal periodicity in the early part of the 20th century. This low-frequency IOD occurred more frequently before 1924 with mostly quasi-biennial ranging from 18 months to 3 years events since 1960. The mode shift has also coincided with an intensified coupling with Indian summer monsoon rainfall. We suggest that a warming of the western Indian Ocean, which has attenuated and replaced the El Niño/Southern Oscillation effect over the Indian Ocean, has driven the observed shift.

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