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How the Belgian wind farm business made us discover the challenging environment of marine sand dunes
Bolle, A.; Mathys, M.; Haerens, P. (2013). How the Belgian wind farm business made us discover the challenging environment of marine sand dunes, in: Van Lancker, V. et al. (Ed.) MARID 2013: Fourth International Conference on Marine and River Dune Dynamics. Bruges, Belgium, 15-17 April 2013. VLIZ Special Publication, 65: pp. 45-52
In: Van Lancker, V.; Garlan, T. (Ed.) (2013). MARID 2013: Fourth International Conference on Marine and River Dune Dynamics. Bruges, Belgium, 15-17 April 2013. VLIZ Special Publication, 65. Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences/SHOM/Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ): Oostende. ISBN 978-2-11-128352-7. 338 pp., more
In: VLIZ Special Publication. Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee (VLIZ): Oostende. ISSN 1377-0950, more

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Keywords
    Bedforms; Environmental impact; Morphology; Sand dunes; Seabed; Wind farms; Marine

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Abstract
    During the last decade, it has become clear that sand dunes are important features in the Belgian wind farm concession area. Because they influence not only the design seabed levels, but also the hydrodynamic forcings and installation methods for both cable and foundations, the study of the seabed morphodynamics is essential for all wind farm projects. This paper starts with an overview of the geographic and morphological setting of the Belgian wind farm concession areas and presents an overview of the key features of the bedforms in the different concessions. Next the importance and impact of the sand dunes during the design and development of these wind farms is illustrated by exploring the different types of studies and investigations which have been performed in relation to seabed & morphology, the hydrodynamic loadings, the installation methods and the environmental impact assessments.

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