|Enforcement in Kenya’s Marine Protected Area network: executive summary presented at the enforcement session, second international tropical marine ecosystems management symposium 24th – 27th March 2003 Manila, Philippines|
Muthiga, N. A. (2003). Enforcement in Kenya’s Marine Protected Area network: executive summary presented at the enforcement session, second international tropical marine ecosystems management symposium 24th – 27th March 2003 Manila, Philippines. International Tropical Marine Ecosystems Management Symposium (ITMEMS): [s.l.]. 7 pp.
The Kenyan coastline is approximately 500 km long, with a well-developed fringing reef system except where major rivers (Tana and Athi Sabaki) discharge into the Indian Ocean (Hamilton and Brakel, 1984). Additionally patch reefs occur in Malindi and Kiunga in the north and Shimoni in the south on the Kenya Tanzania border (Fig. 1). Coral reefs are the predominant marine ecosystem in terms of ecology and economy but seagrass beds and mangrove forests also contribute to the economy of the coastal communities ( Muthiga ITMEMS). The coastal topography, climate and habitats of the Kenyan coast have been described in McClanahan 1988, McClanahan and Young 1986, Obura et al 2000). In order to conserve and manage these important ecosystems, the government of Kenya has established a system of marine parks and reserves managed by the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS). Kenya has four marine parks including (from north to south) Malindi, Watamu, Mombasa and Kisite and 6 marine reserves including Kiunga, Malindi-Watamu, Mombasa, Diani-Chale and Mpunguti marine reserves (Fig. 1). All these marine protected areas encompass important marine habitats including coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangrove forests, but are ecologically and economically dominated by coral reefs.