|Evolution in the deep sea: biological traits, ecology and phylogenetics of pelagic copepods|Laakmann, S.; Auel, H.; Kochzius, M. (2012). Evolution in the deep sea: biological traits, ecology and phylogenetics of pelagic copepods. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 65(2): 535-546. hdl.handle.net/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.07.007
In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Elsevier: Orlando, FL. ISSN 1055-7903, more
Calanoida [WoRMS]; Marine
Phylogeny; Ecology; Deep sea; Speciation; Calanoid copepods
|Authors|| || Top |
- Laakmann, S.
- Auel, H., more
- Kochzius, M., more
Deep-sea biodiversity has received increasing interest in the last decade, mainly focusing on benthic communities. In contrast, studies of zooplankton in the meso- to bathypelagic zones are relatively scarce. In order to explore evolutionary processes in the pelagic deep sea, the present study focuses on copepods of two clausocalanoid families, Euchaetidae and Aetideidae, which are abundant and species-rich in the deep-sea pelagic realm. Molecular phylogenies based on concatenated-portioned data on 18S, 28S and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), as well as mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), were examined on 13 species, mainly from Arctic and Antarctic regions, together with species-specific biological traits (i.e. vertical occurrence, feeding behaviour, dietary preferences, energy storage, and reproductive strategy). Relationships were resolved on genus, species and even sub-species levels, the latter two established by COI with maximum average genetic distances ranging from ?5.3% at the intra-specific, and 20.6% at the inter-specific level. There is no resolution at a family level, emphasising the state of Euchaetidae and Aetideidae as sister families and suggesting a fast radiation of these lineages, a hypothesis which is further supported by biological parameters. Euchaetidae were similar in lipid-specific energy storage, reproductive strategy, as well as feeding behaviour and dietary preference. In contrast, Aetideidae were more diverse, comprising a variety of characteristics ranging from similar adaptations within Paraeuchaeta, to genera consisting of species with completely different reproductive and feeding ecologies. Reproductive strategies were generally similar within each aetideid genus, but differed between genera. Closely related species (congeners), which were similar in the aforementioned biological and ecological traits, generally occurred in different depth layers, suggesting that vertical partitioning of the water column represents an important mechanism in the speciation processes for these deep-sea copepods. High COI divergence between Arctic and Antarctic specimens of the mesopelagic cosmopolitan Gaetanus tenuispinus and the bipolar Aetideopsis minor suggest different geographic forms, potentially cryptic species or sibling species. On the contrary, Arctic and Antarctic individuals of the bathypelagic cosmopolitans Gaetanus brevispinus and Paraeuchaeta barbata were very similar in COI sequence, suggesting more gene flow at depth and/or that driving forces for speciation were less pronounced in bathypelagic than at mesopelagic depths.