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Range estimation of cetaceans with compact volumetric arrays
Zimmer, W.M.X. (2013). Range estimation of cetaceans with compact volumetric arrays. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134(3): 2610-2618.
In: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. American Institute of Physics: New York. ISSN 0001-4966, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    acoustic wave velocity, distance measurement, hydrophones, underwater sound

Author  Top 
  • Zimmer, W.M.X.

    Passive acoustic monitoring is the method of choice to detect whales and dolphins that are acoustically active and to monitor their underwater behavior. The NATO Science and Technology Organization Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation has recently implemented a compact passive acoustic monitor (CPAM), consisting of three arrays of two hydrophones each that are combined in a fixed three-dimensional arrangement and that may be towed at depths of more than 100?m. With its volumetric configuration, the CPAM is capable of estimating the three-dimensional direction vector of arriving sounds and under certain conditions on relative geometry between the whale and hydrophone array, the CPAM may also estimate the range to echolocating animals. Basic ranging methods assume constant sound speed and apply straightforward geometry to obtain depth and distance to the sound source. Alternatively, ray-tracing based methods may be employed to integrate the information provided by real sound speed profiles. Both ranging methods combine measurements of sound arrival angles and surface reflection delays and are easily implemented in real-time applications, whereby one could promote the ray-tracing approach as the preferred method because it may integrate real sound speed profiles.

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