|Relative contributions of domestic and foreign sourced ballast water to propagule pressure in Puget Sound, Washington, USA|Lawrence, D.L.; Cordell, J.R. (2010). Relative contributions of domestic and foreign sourced ballast water to propagule pressure in Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Biol. Conserv. 143(3): 700-709. hdl.handle.net/10.1016/j.biocon.2009.12.008
In: Biological Conservation. Elsevier: Barking. ISSN 0006-3207, more
Non-indigenous species; Mid-ocean exchange; Biological invasions
|Authors|| || Top |
- Lawrence, D.L.
- Cordell, J.R.
The movement and release of non-indigenous species (NIS) in ship ballast water is a global threat to the conservation of native aquatic species and habitats. One key to successful NIS establishment in coastal waters is propagule pressure – the size and frequency of NIS inoculations. We estimated propagule pressure of high-risk coastal zooplankton delivered in ballast water to Puget Sound, Washington, USA, which receives 7.5 × 106 m3 of ballast water annually. We weighed the relative propagule pressure from domestic and foreign ballast water, in terms of propagule size (number of individuals), frequency of NIS occurrences, and diversity (number of known NIS species). Ship discharge volume was not a good predictor of propagule pressure. Instead route type (domestic or foreign) and ballast water exchange status (exchanged in mid-ocean vs. unexchanged) were much better predictors of propagule supply. Overall, while the diversity of non-indigenous zooplankton was higher in trans-oceanic ballast, the annual discharge of coastal zooplankton propagules to Puget Sound was much greater for ships conducting domestic voyages. These results suggest that intra-coastal ballast water must be further scrutinized as a pathway for NIS introduction, and calls into question regional “common waters” agreements that allow vessels to move ballast without conducting ballast water treatment.