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The use of Littorina littorea for tributyltin (TBT) effect monitoring — Results from the German TBT survey 1994/1995 and laboratory experiments
Bauer, B.; Fioroni, P.; Schulte-Oehlmann, U.; Oehlmann, J.; Kalbfus, W. (1997). The use of Littorina littorea for tributyltin (TBT) effect monitoring — Results from the German TBT survey 1994/1995 and laboratory experiments. Environ. Pollut. 96(3): 299-309. hdl.handle.net/10.1016/S0269-7491(97)00049-3
In: Environmental Pollution. Elsevier: Barking. ISSN 0269-7491, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in Authors 

Keywords
    Imposex; Tributyltin; Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758) [WoRMS]; Marine
Author keywords
    Intersex; TBT; Biological-effect monitoring

Authors  Top 
  • Bauer, B.
  • Fioroni, P.
  • Schulte-Oehlmann, U.
  • Oehlmann, J.
  • Kalbfus, W.

Abstract
    Field investigations and laboratory experiments were performed to test the applicability of the intersex phenomenon in Littorina littorea for biological TBT-effect monitoring and to give further insights into toxicological aspects of intersex development. The intensity of the phenomenon is correlated with the degree of TBT contamination in the environment. Statistically highly significant correlations of biological indices and TBT concentrations in tissue and sediment exist. Intersex can be induced only in juvenile and sexually immature females and its intensity depends on the ontogenetic stage of development during TBT exposure. For the first time, malformations in male periwinkles closely related to the TBT contamination can be described; the reduction of male mamilliform penial glands shows highly significant correlations to TBT concentrations in tissues. The intersex phenomenon in Littorina littorea is proposed for a biological TBT-effect monitoring in those areas where the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus, as the more sensitive species in European surveys, is absent. The intersex index (ISI) as the mean value of the intersex stages in a sample should be used as the most sensitive biological parameter for the assessment of the TBT contamination in Littorina littorea.

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