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Tributyltin and copper effects on encystment and in vitro excystment of Parorchis acanthus larvae
Bennett, S.C.; Irwin, S.W.B.; Fitzpatrick, S.M. (2003). Tributyltin and copper effects on encystment and in vitro excystment of Parorchis acanthus larvae. J. Helminthol. 77(4): 291-296.
In: Journal of Helminthology. Cambridge University Press: London. ISSN 0022-149X, more
Peer reviewed article  

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    Copper; Encystment; Tributyltin; Parorchis acanthus (Nicoll, 906) Nicoll, 1907 [WoRMS]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Bennett, S.C.
  • Irwin, S.W.B.
  • Fitzpatrick, S.M.

    Effects of tributyltin (TBT) and copper (Cu) on cercariae and metacercariae of the trematode Parorchis acanthus (Digenea: Philophthalmidae) were investigated. Cercariae released by the dogwhelk, Nucella lapillus were maintained in natural seawater (SW) or solutions of TBT or Cu ranging from 0.001–100?µg?l-1 and 1–6?mg?l-1 respectively before they encysted. Over 79% of the cercariae encysted in control and test solutions. Low concentrations of TBT reduced encystment success more than low concentrations of Cu. The percentage of cercariae that formed cysts in the highest concentrations of both pollutants was higher than in the controls, perhaps representing an ‘emergency response’ to the pollutants. Before being induced to excyst in vitro, metacercariae were left in the heavy metal solutions for 3 weeks. Metacercariae exposed as cercariae to TBT and Cu achieved lower percentage excystment success than those that had encysted in SW. Cyst walls provided greater protection against Cu than TBT. It was concluded that TBT and Cu had a detrimental effect on the larval stages of P. acanthus at the higher concentrations used but the cyst wall afforded an element of protection if formed in unpolluted seawater before the larval stages were subjected to the pollutants.

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