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The International Polar Year 1882-1883
Tammiksaar, E.; Sukhova, N.G.; Lüdecke, C. (2010). The International Polar Year 1882-1883, in: Barr, S. et al. (Ed.) The history of the International Polar Years (IPYs). From Pole to Pole, : pp. 7-33.
In: Barr, S.; Lüdecke, C. (Ed.) (2010). The history of the International Polar Years (IPYs). From Pole to Pole. Springer: Berlin. ISBN 978-3-642-12402-0. xi, 319 pp.., more
In: From Pole to Pole. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 2193-7338, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Tammiksaar, E.
  • Sukhova, N.G.
  • Lüdecke, C.

    During the nineteenth century in the western world knowledge production was centred in North America and Europe including Russia, while Asia and Africa were not considered. Economical progress was accompanied by the establishment of national weather services and the development of systematic data collections. The Göttingen Magnetic Association (1836–1841) paved the way for international co-ordinated scientific work, when an international network of altogether 53 magnetic stations was established all over the world. On special days, called “term days”, readings of magnetic parameters should be made every 5 min at exactly the same time for the period of 24 hours. The British “Magnetic Crusade” to search for the magnetic pole of the southern hemisphere in the early 1840s was initiated in this context. Concerning maritime meteorology, a conference at Brussels in 1853 promoted the collection of meteorological data from ships, and the establishment of weather services all over the world was another remarkable milestone of scientific endeavour. The institutionalization of both disciplines – meteorology and oceanography – led to international arrangements concerning standard measurements and observing time. Traditionally, in all observatories investigations of the terrestrial magnetism were made together with meteorological measurements. "Although there is only a weak relation between both phenomena, one is used to considering them as related."

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