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Intact Polar and Core Glycerol Dibiphytanyl Glycerol Tetraether Lipids of Group I.1a and I.1b Thaumarchaeota in Soil
Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Hopmans, E.C.; Jung, M.Y.; Kim, J.G.; Rhee, S.K.; Stieglmeier, M.; Schleper, C. (2012). Intact Polar and Core Glycerol Dibiphytanyl Glycerol Tetraether Lipids of Group I.1a and I.1b Thaumarchaeota in Soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78(19): 6866-6874. dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01681-12
In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology: Washington. ISSN 0099-2240, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Authors  Top 
  • Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., more
  • Rijpstra, W.I.C., more
  • Hopmans, E.C., more
  • Jung, M.Y.
  • Kim, J.G.
  • Rhee, S.K.
  • Stieglmeier, M.
  • Schleper, C.

Abstract
    Ecological studies of thaumarchaeota often apply glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT)-based intact membrane lipids. However, these components have only been characterized for thaumarchaeota from aquatic environments. Thaumarchaeota have been shown to play an important role in the nitrogen cycle in soil as ammonium oxidizers, and GDGTs are common lipids encountered in soil. We report the core and intact polar lipid (IPL) GDGTs produced by three newly available thaumarchaeota isolated from grassland soil in Austria ("Nitrososphaera viennensis," group I.1b) and enriched from agricultural soils in South Korea ("Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis" MY1, group I.1a; and "Candidatus Nitrososphaera" strain JG1, group I.1b). The soil thaumarchaeota all synthesize crenarchaeol as their major core GDGT, in agreement with the fact that crenarchaeol has also been detected in thaumarchaeota from aquatic environments. The crenarchaeol regioisomer apparently is produced in significant quantities only by soil thaumarchaeota of the I.1b subgroup. In addition, GDGTs with 0 to 4 cyclopentane moieties and GDGTs containing an additional hydroxyl group were detected. The IPL head groups of their membrane lipids comprised mainly monohexose, dihexose, trihexose, phosphohexose, and hexose-phosphohexose moieties. The hexose-phosphohexose head group bound to crenarchaeol occurred in all soil thaumarchaeota, and this IPL is at present the only lipid that is detected in all thaumarchaeota analyzed so far. This specificity and its lability indicate that it is the most suitable biomarker lipid to trace living thaumarchaeota. This study, in combination with previous studies, also suggests that hydroxylated GDGTs occur in the I.1a, but not in the I.1b, subgroup of the thaumarchaeota.

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