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Enrichment and Characterization of an Autotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon of Mesophilic Crenarchaeal Group I.1a from an Agricultural Soil
Jung, M.Y.; Park, S.J.; Min, D.; Kim, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kim, G.J.; Madsen, E.L.; Rhee, S.K. (2011). Enrichment and Characterization of an Autotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon of Mesophilic Crenarchaeal Group I.1a from an Agricultural Soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77(24): 8635-8647. dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.05787-11
In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology: Washington. ISSN 0099-2240, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Jung, M.Y.
  • Park, S.J.
  • Min, D.
  • Kim, J.S.
  • Rijpstra, W.I.C., more
  • Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., more
  • Kim, G.J.
  • Madsen, E.L.
  • Rhee, S.K.

Abstract
    Soil nitrification is an important process for agricultural productivity and environmental pollution. Though one cultivated representative of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea from soil has been described, additional representatives warrant characterization. We describe an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon (strain MY1) in a highly enriched culture derived from agricultural soil. Fluorescence in situ hybridization microscopy showed that, after 2 years of enrichment, the culture was composed of >90% archaeal cells. Clone libraries of both 16S rRNA and archaeal amoA genes featured a single sequence each. No bacterial amoA genes could be detected by PCR. A [(13)C] bicarbonate assimilation assay showed stoichiometric incorporation of (13)C into Archaea-specific glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers. Strain MY1 falls phylogenetically within crenarchaeal group I.1a; sequence comparisons to "Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus" revealed 96.9% 16S rRNA and 89.2% amoA gene similarities. Completed growth assays showed strain MY1 to be chemoautotrophic, mesophilic (optimum at 25 degrees C), neutrophilic (optimum at pH 6.5 to 7.0), and nonhalophilic (optimum at 0.2 to 0.4% salinity). Kinetic respirometry assays showed that strain MY1's affinities for ammonia and oxygen were much higher than those of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The yield of the greenhouse gas N(2)O in the strain MY1 culture was lower but comparable to that of soil AOB. We propose that this new soil ammonia-oxidizing archaeon be designated "Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis."

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