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13,16-Dimethyl Octacosanedioic Acid (iso-Diabolic Acid), a Common Membrane-Spanning Lipid of Acidobacteria Subdivisions 1 and 3
Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Hopmans, E.C.; Weijers, J.W.; Foesel, B.U.; Overmann, J.; Dedysh, S.N. (2011). 13,16-Dimethyl Octacosanedioic Acid (iso-Diabolic Acid), a Common Membrane-Spanning Lipid of Acidobacteria Subdivisions 1 and 3. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77(12): 4147-4154. dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00466-11
In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology: Washington. ISSN 0099-2240, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., more
  • Rijpstra, W.I.C.
  • Hopmans, E.C., more
  • Weijers, J.W.
  • Foesel, B.U.
  • Overmann, J.
  • Dedysh, S.N.

Abstract
    The distribution of membrane lipids of 17 different strains representing 13 species of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the phylum Acidobacteria, a highly diverse phylum of the Bacteria, were examined by hydrolysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) and by high-performance liquid chromatography-MS of intact polar lipids. Upon both acid and base hydrolyses of total cell material, the uncommon membrane-spanning lipid 13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid (iso-diabolic acid) was released in substantial amounts (22 to 43% of the total fatty acids) from all of the acidobacteria studied. This lipid has previously been encountered only in thermophilic Thermoanaerobacter species but bears a structural resemblance to the alkyl chains of bacterial glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) that occur ubiquitously in peat and soil and are suspected to be produced by acidobacteria. As reported previously, most species also contained iso-C-15 and C-16:1 omega 7C as major fatty acids but the presence of iso-diabolic acid was unnoticed in previous studies, most probably because the complex lipid that contained this moiety was not extractable from the cells; it could only be released by hydrolysis. Direct analysis of intact polar lipids in the Bligh-Dyer extract of three acidobacterial strains, indeed, did not reveal any membrane-spanning lipids containing iso-diabolic acid. In 3 of the 17 strains, ether-bound iso-diabolic acid was detected after hydrolysis of the cells, including one branched GDGT containing iso-diabolic acid-derived alkyl chains. Since the GDGT distribution in soils is much more complex, branched GDGTs in soil likely also originate from other (acido) bacteria capable of biosynthesizing these components.

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