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Core and Intact Polar Glycerol Dibiphytanyl Glycerol Tetraether Lipids of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea Enriched from Marine and Estuarine Sediments
Pitcher, A.; Hopmans, E.C.; Mosier, A.C.; Park, S.J.; Rhee, S.K.; Francis, C.A.; Schouten, S. (2011). Core and Intact Polar Glycerol Dibiphytanyl Glycerol Tetraether Lipids of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea Enriched from Marine and Estuarine Sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77(10): 3468-3477. dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02758-10
In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology: Washington. ISSN 0099-2240, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Pitcher, A., more
  • Hopmans, E.C., more
  • Mosier, A.C.
  • Park, S.J.
  • Rhee, S.K.
  • Francis, C.A.
  • Schouten, S., more

Abstract
    Glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT)-based intact membrane lipids are increasingly being used as complements to conventional molecular methods in ecological studies of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the marine environment. However, the few studies that have been done on the detailed lipid structures synthesized by AOA in (enrichment) culture are based on species enriched from nonmarine environments, i.e., a hot spring, an aquarium filter, and a sponge. Here we have analyzed core and intact polar lipid (IPL)-GDGTs synthesized by three newly available AOA enriched directly from marine sediments taken from the San Francisco Bay estuary ("Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum limnia"), and coastal marine sediments from Svalbard, Norway, and South Korea. Like previously screened AOA, the sedimentary AOA all synthesize crenarchaeol (a GDGT containing a cyclohexane moiety and four cyclopentane moieties) as a major core GDGT, thereby supporting the hypothesis that crenarchaeol is a biomarker lipid for AOA. The IPL headgroups synthesized by sedimentary AOA comprised mainly monohexose, dihexose, phosphohexose, and hexose-phosphohexose moieties. The hexose-phosphohexose headgroup bound to crenarchaeol was common to all enrichments and, in fact, the only IPL common to every AOA enrichment analyzed to date. This apparent specificity, in combination with its inferred lability, suggests that it may be the most suitable biomarker lipid to trace living AOA. GDGTs bound to headgroups with a mass of 180 Da of unknown structure appear to be specific to the marine group I.1a AOA: they were synthesized by all three sedimentary AOA and "Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus"; however, they were absent in the group I.1b AOA "Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis."

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