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Impacts of climate change on European marine ecosystems: Observations, expectations and indicators
Philippart, C.J.M.; Anadón, R.; Danovaro, R.; Dippner, J.W.; Drinkwater, K.F.; Hawkins, S.J.; Oguz, T.; O'Sullivan, G.; Reid, P.C. (2011). Impacts of climate change on European marine ecosystems: Observations, expectations and indicators. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 400(1-2): 52-69. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2011.02.023
In: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. Elsevier: Tokyo; Oxford; New York; Lausanne; Shannon; Amsterdam. ISSN 0022-0981, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in Authors 

Author keywords
    Climate change scenarios; Climate change indicators; European seas;Long-term changes; Marine ecosystems; Spatiotemporal scales

Authors  Top 
  • Philippart, C.J.M., more
  • Anadón, R.
  • Danovaro, R.
  • Dippner, J.W.
  • Drinkwater, K.F.
  • Hawkins, S.J., more
  • Oguz, T., more
  • O'Sullivan, G.
  • Reid, P.C., more

Abstract
    The Northern Hemisphere has been warmer since 1980 than at any other time during the last 2000 years. The observed increase in temperature has been generally higher in northern than in southern European seas, and higher in enclosed than in open seas. Although European marine ecosystems are influenced by many other factors, such as nutrient enrichment and overfishing, every region has shown at least some changes that were most likely attributable to recent climate change. It is expected that within open systems there will generally be (further) northward movement of species, leading to a switch from polar to more temperate species in the northern seas such as the Arctic, Barents Sea and the Nordic Seas, and subtropical species moving northward to temperate regions such as the Iberian upwelling margin. For seas that are highly influenced by river runoff, such as the Baltic Sea, an increase in freshwater due to enhanced rainfall will lead to a shift from marine to more brackish and even freshwater species. If semi-enclosed systems such as the Mediterranean and the Black Sea lose their endemic species, the associated niches will probably be filled by species originating from adjacent waters and, possibly, with species transported from one region to another via ballast water and the Suez Canal. A better understanding of potential climate change impacts (scenarios) at both regional and local levels, the development of improved methods to quantify the uncertainty of climate change projections, the construction of usable climate change indicators, and an improvement of the interface between science and policy formulation in terms of risk assessment will be essential to formulate and inform better adaptive strategies to address the inevitable consequences of climate change.

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