|Qualifying and quantifying offshore wind farm-generated noise|
Norro, A.; Botteldooren, D.; Dekoninck, L.; Haelters, J.; Rumes, B.; Van Renterghem, T.; Degraer, S. (2013). Qualifying and quantifying offshore wind farm-generated noise, in: Degraer, S. et al. (Ed.) Environmental impacts of offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea: Learning from the past to optimise future monitoring programmes. pp. 63-69
In: Degraer, S. et al. (Ed.) (2013). Environmental impacts of offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea: Learning from the past to optimise future monitoring programmes. Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (RBINS), Operational Directorate Natural Environment, Marine Ecology and Management Section: Brussels. ISBN 978-90-9027-928-2. 239 pp., more
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The construction, operation and dismantling of offshore wind farms generate noise both above and under water that may be of environmental concern. The maximum detected sound power level of the above water pin piling noise for example, reached 145 dB(A), while the operational sound power level amounted to 105-115 dB(A) at high wind speed. Underwater construction noise was close to ambient noise levels for gravity based foundations (about 115 dB re 1 µPa RMS), while pin piling and especially monopile piling produced excessive levels of underwater noise up to 194 dB re 1 µPa (zero to peak level at 750m), attenuating to ambient noise levels at a distance of up to 70 km. Whether or not such noise levels are to be considered acceptable will depend on the future implementation of proposed regulations into the Belgian legislation.