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Cultivation of sponges, sponge cells and symbionts: achievements and future prospects
Sipkema, D.; Smidt, H.; Pomponi, S.A.; Wijffels, R.H. (2012). Cultivation of sponges, sponge cells and symbionts: achievements and future prospects. Adv. Mar. Biol. 62: 273-337.
In: Advances in Marine Biology. Academic Press: London, New York. ISSN 0065-2881, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

    Cell culture; Cultivation; Genomics; Microorganisms; Natural products; Secondary metabolites; Sponges; Symbiosis; Marine
Author keywords
    sponge; cultivation; cell culture; symbiosis; natural product;microorganisms; secondary metabolite; genomics

Authors  Top 
  • Sipkema, D.
  • Smidt, H.
  • Pomponi, S.A.
  • Wijffels, R.H.

    Marine sponges are a rich source of bioactive compounds with pharmaceutical potential. Since biological production is one option to supply materials for early drug development, the main challenge is to establish generic techniques for small-scale production of marine organisms. We analysed the state of the art for cultivation of whole sponges, sponge cells and sponge symbionts. To date, cultivation of whole sponges has been most successful in situ; however, optimal conditions are species specific. The establishment of sponge cell lines has been limited by the inability to obtain an axenic inoculunn as well as the lack of knowledge on nutritional requirements in vitro. Approaches to overcome these bottlenecks, including transformation of sponge cells and using media based on yolk, are elaborated. Although a number of bioactive metabolite-producing microorganisms have been isolated from sponges, and it has been suggested that the source of most sponge-derived bioactive compounds is microbial symbionts, cultivation of sponge-specific microorganisms has had limited success. The current genomics revolution provides novel approaches to cultivate these microorganisms.

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