|Ecology and biodiversity of mangroves|
Aksornkoae, S. (1995). Ecology and biodiversity of mangroves, in: Khemnark, C. et al. (Ed.) Ecology and management of mangrove restoration and regeneration in East and Southeast Asia: Proceedings of the ECOTONE IV, 18-22 January, 1995, Surat Thani, Thailand. pp. 20-36
In: Khemnark, C. et al. (Ed.) (1995). Ecology and management of mangrove restoration and regeneration in East and Southeast Asia: Proceedings of the ECOTONE IV, 18-22 January, 1995, Surat Thani, Thailand. Kasetsart University: Bangkok, more
Biodiversity; Mangroves; Brackish water
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Mangroves occur in the intertidal zones along the sea coast in most tropical and sub-tropical countries and are among the most productive of ecosystems. The total mangrove area of the world has been assessed to be approximately 18,15 million hectares. Mangroves represent a rich and diverse living resource and are valuable to both the economy and protection of coastal environments. Mangrove ecosystems, both structure and functions, depend heavily on various important environmental factors such as climate, tides, waves and currents, salinity, dissolved oxygen, soils and nutrients. Mangroves are rich in biological diversity including many varieties of flora and fauna and these living organisms consist of specialized plant and animal species, well adapted to the unique conditions of mangrove ecosystems. During the fast decade, considerable number of research papers regarding to the survey of flora and fauna of mangrove forests in the world have been published. More than 80 species of plants including trees, shrubs, palms, ferns, epiphytes and algae can be found in mangroves. Various kinds of fauna including shrimps, fishes, crabs, molluscs, mammals, reptiles, birds, insects and microorganisms are also found in this ecosystem. Understanding ecology and biodiversity of mangroves is highly significant in managing and conserving these coastal resources to be sustainable.