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Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea
Pyenson, N.D.; Gutstein, C.S.; Parham, J.F.; Le Roux, J.P.; Carreño Chavarría, C.; Little, H.; Metallo, A.; Rossi, V.; Valenzuela-Toro, A.M.; Velez-Juarbe, J.; Santelli, C.M.; Rubiral Rogers, D.; Cozzuol, M.A.; Suárez, M.E. (2014). Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea. Proc. - Royal Soc., Biol. Sci. 281(1781): 9 pp. hdl.handle.net/10.1098/rspb.2013.3316
In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. The Royal Society: London. ISSN 0962-8452, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

Keyword
    Marine
Author keywords
    taphonomy, strandings, fossil record, harmful algal blooms

Authors  Top 
  • Pyenson, N.D.
  • Gutstein, C.S.
  • Parham, J.F.
  • Le Roux, J.P.
  • Carreño Chavarría, C.
  • Little, H.
  • Metallo, A.
  • Rossi, V.
  • Valenzuela-Toro, A.M.
  • Velez-Juarbe, J.
  • Santelli, C.M.
  • Rubiral Rogers, D.
  • Cozzuol, M.A.
  • Suárez, M.E.

Abstract
    Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass stranding agent with broad geographical and widespread taxonomic impact. Toxin-mediated mortalities in marine food webs have the potential to occur over geological timescales, but direct evidence for their antiquity has been lacking. Here, we describe an unusually dense accumulation of fossil marine vertebrates from Cerro Ballena, a Late Miocene locality in Atacama Region of Chile, preserving over 40 skeletons of rorqual whales, sperm whales, seals, aquatic sloths, walrus-whales and predatory bony fish. Marine mammal skeletons are distributed in four discrete horizons at the site, representing a recurring accumulation mechanism. Taphonomic analysis points to strong spatial focusing with a rapid death mechanism at sea, before being buried on a barrier-protected supratidal flat. In modern settings, HABs are the only known natural cause for such repeated, multispecies accumulations. This proposed agent suggests that upwelling zones elsewhere in the world should preserve fossil marine vertebrate accumulations in similar modes and densities.

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