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Sounds in the ocean at 1-100 Hz
Wilcock, W.S.D.; Stafford, K.M.; Andrew, R.K.; Odom, R.I. (2014). Sounds in the ocean at 1-100 Hz. Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci. 6: 117-140.
In: Annual Review of Marine Science. Annual Reviews: Palo Alto, Calif. ISSN 1941-1405, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

Author keywords
    acoustics, ocean waves, earthquakes, marine mammals, shipping

Authors  Top 
  • Wilcock, W.S.D.
  • Stafford, K.M.
  • Andrew, R.K.
  • Odom, R.I.

    Very-low-frequency sounds between 1 and 100 Hz propagate large distances in the ocean sound channel. Weather conditions, earthquakes, marine mammals, and anthropogenic activities influence sound levels in this band. Weather-related sounds result from interactions between waves, bubbles entrained by breaking waves, and the deformation of sea ice. Earthquakes generate sound in geologically active regions, and earthquake T waves propagate throughout the oceans. Blue and fin whales generate long bouts of sounds near 20 Hz that can dominate regional ambient noise levels seasonally. Anthropogenic sound sources include ship propellers, energy extraction, and seismic air guns and have been growing steadily. The increasing availability of long-term records of ocean sound will provide new opportunities for a deeper understanding of natural and anthropogenic sound sources and potential interactions between them.

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