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Climate change influences on marine infectious diseases: implications for management and society
Burge, C.A.; Eakin, C.M.; Friedman, C.S.; Froelich, B.; Hershberger, P.K.; Hofmann, E.E.; Petes, L.E.; Prager, K.C.; Weil, E.; Willis, B.L.; Ford, S.E.; Harvell, C.D. (2014). Climate change influences on marine infectious diseases: implications for management and society. Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci. 6: 249-277.
In: Annual Review of Marine Science. Annual Reviews: Palo Alto, Calif. ISSN 1941-1405, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

Author keywords
    epizootics, mass mortalities, health, oceans, ocean warming

Authors  Top 
  • Burge, C.A.
  • Eakin, C.M.
  • Friedman, C.S.
  • Froelich, B.
  • Hershberger, P.K.
  • Hofmann, E.E.
  • Petes, L.E.
  • Prager, K.C.
  • Weil, E.
  • Willis, B.L.
  • Ford, S.E.
  • Harvell, C.D.

    Infectious diseases are common in marine environments, but the effects of a changing climate on marine pathogens are not well understood. Here we review current knowledge about how the climate drives host-pathogen interactions and infectious disease outbreaks. Climate-related impacts on marine diseases are being documented in corals, shellfish, finfish, and humans; these impacts are less clearly linked for other organisms. Oceans and people are inextricably linked, and marine diseases can both directly and indirectly affect human health, livelihoods, and well-being. We recommend an adaptive management approach to better increase the resilience of ocean systems vulnerable to marine diseases in a changing climate. Land-based management methods of quarantining, culling, and vaccinating are not successful in the ocean; therefore, forecasting conditions that lead to outbreaks and designing tools/approaches to influence these conditions may be the best way to manage marine disease.

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