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Conditions for the existence of life at the deep-sea floor: an update
Tyler, P.A. (1995). Conditions for the existence of life at the deep-sea floor: an update. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 33: 221-244
In: Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review. Aberdeen University Press/Allen & Unwin: London. ISSN 0078-3218, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Nepheloid layer; Seamounts; Sponges; Tidal currents; Hexactinellida [WoRMS]; Pheronema carpenteri (Thomson, 1869) [WoRMS]; A, Atlantic [Marine Regions]; Marine

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Abstract
    The physical and chemical variables that determine the distribution of deep-sea fauna at the sea bed are re-evaluated from the observations of Menzies 30 years ago. To the unitary variables described by Menzies must be added suspended material, energy availability and current flow. These additional data support the concept that the deep sea is a much more variable environment than was originally predicted. The most profound understanding of deep-sea processes comes from interdisciplinary studies such as the High Energy Benthic Boundary Layer Experiment, and studies in submarine canyons and around seamounts. Although the physical environment determines the large-scale and some small-scale processes, it is the biological modification of highly localized areas that leads to the small-scale spatial heterogeneity that is believed to be responsible for the high species diversity in the deep sea

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