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New genus and two new species of the family Ethmolaimidae (Nematoda: Chromadorida), found in two different cold-seep environments
Bezerra, T.N.; Pape, E.; Hauquier, F.; Vanreusel, A.; Ingels, J. (2013). New genus and two new species of the family Ethmolaimidae (Nematoda: Chromadorida), found in two different cold-seep environments. Zootaxa 3692(1): 7-27. dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3692.1.4
In: Zootaxa. Magnolia Press: Auckland. ISSN 1175-5326, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Dystomanema Bezerra, Pape, Hauquier, Vanreusel & Ingels, 2013 [WoRMS]; Dystomanema brandtae Bezerra, Pape, Hauquier, Vanreusel & Ingels, 2013 [WoRMS]; Dystomanema cadizensis Bezerra, Pape, Hauquier, Vanreusel & Ingels, 2013 [WoRMS]
Author keywords
    Antarctic; Larsen; Southern Ocean; Gulf of Cadiz; Northeast Atlantic;Dystomanema gen. nov.; Dystomanema cadizensis gen. nov sp nov.;Dystomanema brandtae gen. nov sp nov.; cold seep

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Abstract
    This study describes a new genus Dystomanema gen. nov. with two new species, D. cadizensis sp. nov. and D. brandtae sp. nov. within the family Ethmolaimidae, subfamily Neotonchinae, based on specimens from two low-activity cold-seep environments at distant geographical locations. The new genus was first identified in samples from the Darwin mud vol-cano (1100 m depth) in the Gulf of Cádiz and later on also found in samples from a low-activity seep in the Larsen B embayment (820m depth) off the eastern Antarctic Peninsula. Until now, the family Ethmolaimidae contained nine genera: Ethmolaimus and Paraethmolaimus in the subfamily Ethmolaiminae, and Comesa, Filitonchoides, Filitonchus, Gomphionchus, Gomphionema, Nannolaimus, and Neothonchus in the subfamily Neotonchinae. The most important family characteristics are: an annulated cuticle bearing transverse rows of dots, cephalic sensilla arrangement of 6+6+4, a spiral amphid, an oesophagus with muscular posterior bulb, paired gonads and males with cup-shaped precloacal supplements. The new genus resembles Comesa and Neotonchus, but is typified by a ventrally displaced oral opening with three very small teeth that are easily overlooked. D. cadizensis gen. nov. sp. nov. is characterized by the 1401–2123 µm long body; cuticle transversally striated with fine punctation; head conical; low lips; amphid spiralled 3 turns, oral opening ventrally displaced, male with outstretched testes; spicules of equal size; gubernaculum plate-like and ten to twelve con-spicuous cup-shaped precloacal supplements with external longitudinal articulated flange. D. brandtae gen. nov. sp. nov. can be distinguished by the 2438–3280 µm long body; cuticle transversally striated with fine punctuation; head conical; low lips; amphid spiraled 3+ turns; oral opening ventrally displaced; male with anterior testes outstretched and posterior one smaller and reflexed; spicules of equal size; gubernaculum plate-like and twenty conspicuous cup-shaped precloacal supplements with external longitudinal articulated flange. Notes on the ecology and habitat of the new genus are provided in light of its discovery in cold-seep environments.

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