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The influence of North Atlantic atmospheric and oceanic forcing effects on 1900-2010 Greenland summer climate and ice melt/runoff
Hanna, E.; Jones, J.M.; Cappelen, J.; Mernild, S.H.; Wood, L.; Steffen, K.; Huybrechts, P. (2013). The influence of North Atlantic atmospheric and oceanic forcing effects on 1900-2010 Greenland summer climate and ice melt/runoff. Int. J. Climatol. 33(4): 862-880. dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.3475
In: International Journal of Climatology. Wiley: Chichester; New York. ISSN 0899-8418, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 279219 [ OMA ]

Keyword
    Marine
Author keywords
    Atlantic multidecadal oscillation; climate; global warming; Greenland;Greenland Blocking Index; North Atlantic Oscillation

Authors  Top 
  • Hanna, E.
  • Jones, J.M.
  • Cappelen, J.
  • Mernild, S.H.
  • Wood, L.
  • Steffen, K.
  • Huybrechts, P., more

Abstract
    Correlation analysis of Greenland coastal weather station temperatures against the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) indices for the summer season (when Ice Sheet melt and runoff occur) reveals significant temporal variations over the last 100 years, with periods of strongest correlations in the early twentieth century and during recent decades. During the mid-twentieth century, temperature changes at the stations are not significantly correlated with these circulation indices. Greenland coastal summer temperatures and Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) runoff since the 1970s are more strongly correlated with the Greenland Blocking Index (GBI) than with the NAO Index (NAOI), making the GBI a potentially useful predictor of ice-sheet mass balance changes. Our results show that the changing strength of NAOItemperature relationships found in boreal winter also extends to summer over Greenland. Greenland temperatures and GrIS runoff over the last 3040 years are significantly correlated with AMO variations, although they are more strongly correlated with GBI changes. GrIS melt extent is less significantly correlated with atmospheric and oceanic index changes than runoff, which we attribute to the latter being a more quantitative index of Ice Sheet response to climate change. Moreover, the four recent warm summers of 20072010 are characterised by unprecedented high pressure (since at least 1948the start of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis record) in the tropospheric column. Our results suggest complex and changing atmospheric forcing conditions that are not well captured using the NAO alone, and support theories of an oceanic influence on the recent increases in Greenland temperatures and GrIS runoff.

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