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Aerosolized red tide toxins (brevetoxins) and asthma: Continued health effects after 1 h beach exposure
Kirkpatrick, B.; Fleming, L.E.; Bean, J.A.; Nierenberg, K.; Backer, L.C.; Cheng, Y.S.; Pierce, R.; Reich, A.; Naar, J.; Wanner, A.; Abraham, W.M.; Zhou, Y.; Hollenbeck, J.; Baden, D.G. (2011). Aerosolized red tide toxins (brevetoxins) and asthma: Continued health effects after 1 h beach exposure. Harmful Algae 10(2): 138-143.
In: Harmful Algae. Elsevier: Tokyo; Oxford; New York; London; Amsterdam; Shannon; Paris. ISSN 1568-9883, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

    Karenia brevis (C.C.Davis) Gert Hansen & Ø.Moestrup, 2000 [WoRMS]; Marine
Author keywords
    Coastal; Harmful algal blooms (HABs); Inhalation toxicity; Karenia brevis

Authors  Top 
  • Kirkpatrick, B.
  • Fleming, L.E., more
  • Bean, J.A.
  • Nierenberg, K.
  • Backer, L.C.
  • Cheng, Y.S.
  • Pierce, R.
  • Reich, A.
  • Naar, J.
  • Wanner, A.
  • Abraham, W.M.
  • Zhou, Y.
  • Hollenbeck, J.
  • Baden, D.G.

    Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, produce potent neurotoxins in marine aerosols. Recent studies have demonstrated acute changes in both symptoms and pulmonary function in asthmatics after only 1 h of beach exposure to these aerosols. This study investigated if there were latent and/or sustained effects in asthmatics in the days following the initial beach exposure during periods with and without an active Florida red tide.Symptom data and spirometry data were collected before and after 1 h of beach exposure. Subjects kept daily symptom diaries and measured their peak flow each morning for 5 days following beach exposure. During non-exposure periods, there were no significant changes in symptoms or pulmonary function either acutely or over 5 days of follow-up. After the beach exposure during an active Florida red tide, subjects had elevated mean symptoms which did not return to the pre-exposure baseline for at least 4 days. The peak flow measurements decreased after the initial beach exposure, decreased further within 24 h, and continued to be suppressed even after 5 days. Asthmatics may continue to have increased symptoms and delayed respiratory function suppression for several days after 1 h of exposure to the Florida red tide toxin aerosols.

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