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Review of Florida red tide and human health effects
Fleming, L.E.; Kirkpatrick, B.; Backer, L.C.; Walsh, C.J.; Nierenberg, K.; Clark, J.; Reich, A.; Hollenbeck, J.; Benson, J.; Cheng, Y.S.; Naar, J.; Pierce, R.; Bourdelais, A.J.; Abraham, W.M.; Kirkpatrick, G.; Zaias, J.; Wanner, A.; Mendes, E.; Shalat, S.; Hoagland, P.; Stephan, W.; Bean, J.; Watkins, S.; Clarke, T.; Byrne, M.; Baden, D.G. (2011). Review of Florida red tide and human health effects. Harmful Algae 10(2): 224-233.
In: Harmful Algae. Elsevier: Tokyo; Oxford; New York; London; Amsterdam; Shannon; Paris. ISSN 1568-9883, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

    Karenia brevis (C.C.Davis) Gert Hansen & Ø.Moestrup, 2000 [WoRMS]; Marine
Author keywords
    Brevetoxins; Florida red tide; Harmful algal bloom (HAB); Karenia brevis; Marine toxin diseases; Neurotoxic fish poisoning; Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP); Red tide; Respiratory irritation; Shellfish poisoning

Authors  Top 
  • Fleming, L.E., more
  • Kirkpatrick, B.
  • Backer, L.C.
  • Walsh, C.J.
  • Nierenberg, K.
  • Clark, J.
  • Reich, A.
  • Hollenbeck, J.
  • Benson, J.
  • Cheng, Y.S.
  • Naar, J.
  • Pierce, R.
  • Bourdelais, A.J.
  • Abraham, W.M.
  • Kirkpatrick, G.
  • Zaias, J.
  • Wanner, A.
  • Mendes, E.
  • Shalat, S.
  • Hoagland, P.
  • Stephan, W.
  • Bean, J.
  • Watkins, S.
  • Clarke, T.
  • Byrne, M.
  • Baden, D.G.

    This paper reviews the literature describing research performed over the past decade on the known and possible exposures and human health effects associated with Florida red tides. These harmful algal blooms are caused by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, and similar organisms, all of which produce a suite of natural toxins known as brevetoxins. Florida red tide research has benefited from a consistently funded, long-term research program, that has allowed an interdisciplinary team of researchers to focus their attention on this specific environmental issue—one that is critically important to Gulf of Mexico and other coastal communities. This long-term interdisciplinary approach has allowed the team to engage the local community, identify measures to protect public health, take emerging technologies into the field, forge advances in natural products chemistry, and develop a valuable pharmaceutical product. The review includes a brief discussion of the Florida red tide organisms and their toxins, and then focuses on the effects of these toxins on animals and humans, including how these effects predict what we might expect to see in exposed people.

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