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Inland transport of aerosolized Florida red tide toxins
Kirkpatrick, B.; Pierce, R.; Cheng, Y.S.; Henry, M.S.; Blum, P.; Osborn, S.; Nierenberg, K.; Pederson, B.A.; Fleming, L.E.; Reich, A.; Naar, J.; Kirkpatrick, G.; Backer, L.C.; Baden, D. (2010). Inland transport of aerosolized Florida red tide toxins. Harmful Algae 9(2): 186-189.
In: Harmful Algae. Elsevier: Tokyo; Oxford; New York; London; Amsterdam; Shannon; Paris. ISSN 1568-9883, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

    Karenia brevis (C.C.Davis) Gert Hansen & Ø.Moestrup, 2000 [WoRMS]; Marine
Author keywords
    Brevetoxins; Harmful algal blooms (HABs); Red tides; Karenia brevis; Asthma; Air monitoring

Authors  Top 
  • Kirkpatrick, B.
  • Pierce, R.
  • Cheng, Y.S.
  • Henry, M.S.
  • Blum, P.
  • Osborn, S.
  • Nierenberg, K.
  • Pederson, B.A.
  • Fleming, L.E., more
  • Reich, A.
  • Naar, J.
  • Kirkpatrick, G.
  • Backer, L.C.
  • Baden, D.

    Florida red tides, an annual event off the west coast of Florida, are caused by the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces a suite of potent neurotoxins, brevetoxins, which kill fish, sea birds, and marine mammals, as well as sickening humans who consume contaminated shellfish. These toxins become part of the marine aerosol, and can also be inhaled by humans and other animals. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant increase in symptoms and decrease in lung function in asthmatics after only one hour of beach exposure during an onshore Florida red tide bloom.This study constructed a transect line placing high volume air samplers to measure brevetoxins at sites beginning at the beach, moving approximately 6.4 km inland. One non-exposure and 2 exposure studies, each of 5 days duration, were conducted. No toxins were measured in the air during the non-exposure period. During the 2 exposure periods, the amount of brevetoxins varied considerably by site and by date. Nevertheless, brevetoxins were measured at least 4.2 km from the beach and/or 1.6 km from the coastal shoreline. Therefore, populations sensitive to brevetoxins (such as asthmatics) need to know that leaving the beach may not discontinue their environmental exposure to brevetoxin aerosols.

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