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Occupational exposure to aerosolized brevetoxins during Florida red tide events: Effects on a healthy worker population
Backer, L.C.; Kirkpatrick, B.; Fleming, L.E.; Cheng, Y.S.; Pierce, R.; Bean, J.A.; Clark, R.; Johnson, D.; Wanner, A.; Tamer, R.; Zhou, Y.; Baden, D.G. (2005). Occupational exposure to aerosolized brevetoxins during Florida red tide events: Effects on a healthy worker population. Environ. Health Perspect. 113(5): 644-649.
In: Environmental Health Perspectives. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences: Research Triangle Park, N.C.. ISSN 0091-6765, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

    Karenia brevis (C.C.Davis) Gert Hansen & Ø.Moestrup, 2000 [WoRMS]; Marine
Author keywords
    aerosol, brevetoxins, Karenia brevis, lifeguards, pulmonary function, red tide, spirometry

Authors  Top 
  • Backer, L.C.
  • Kirkpatrick, B.
  • Fleming, L.E., more
  • Cheng, Y.S.
  • Pierce, R.
  • Bean, J.A.
  • Clark, R.
  • Johnson, D.
  • Wanner, A.
  • Tamer, R.
  • Zhou, Y.
  • Baden, D.G.

    Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) is a marine dinoflagellate responsible for red tides that form in the Gulf of Mexico. K. brevis produces brevetoxins, the potent toxins that cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. There is also limited information describing human health effects from environmental exposures to brevetoxins. Our objective was to examine the impact of inhaling aerosolized brevetoxins during red tide events on self-reported symptoms and pulmonary function. We recruited a group of 28 healthy lifeguards who are occupationally exposed to red tide toxins during their daily work-related activities. They performed spirometry tests and reported symptoms before and after their 8-hr shifts during a time when there was no red tide (unexposed period) and again when there was a red tide (exposed period). We also examined how mild exercise affected the reported symptoms and spirometry tests during unexposed and exposed periods with a subgroup of the same lifeguards. Environmental sampling (K. brevis cell concentrations in seawater and brevetoxin concentrations in seawater and air) was used to confirm unexposed/exposed status. Compared with unexposed periods, the group of lifeguards reported more upper respiratory symptoms during the exposed periods. We did not observe any impact of exposure to aerosolized brevetoxins, with or without mild exercise, on pulmonary function.

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