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Historic occurrence of parthenogenetic Artemia in Great Salt Lake, USA, as demonstrated by molecular analysis of field samples
Endebu, M.; Miah, F.; Boon, N.; Catania, F.; Bossier, P.; Van Stappen, G. (2013). Historic occurrence of parthenogenetic Artemia in Great Salt Lake, USA, as demonstrated by molecular analysis of field samples. J. Great Lakes Res. 39(1): 47-55. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2012.12.017
In: Journal of Great Lakes Research. IAGLR/International Association for Great Lakes Research: Buffalo. ISSN 0380-1330, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 279092 [ OMA ]

Keyword
    Artemia franciscana Kellog, 1906 [WoRMS]
Author keywords
    Artemia franciscana; Parthenogenetic Artemia; Great Salt Lake;Na/K-ATPase gene; HSP26 gene

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Abstract
    Great Salt Lake (GSL), USA is the main source of the commercially important Artemia franciscana Kellogg (1906) cysts used in larviculture. Our objective was to document the presence of parthenogenetic Artemia in GSL analysing a series of non-commercial samples harvested over the period 1997–2005. Laboratory cultures suggested that sex ratios were skewed in some years. Species-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the exon-7 of the Na/K-ATPase a-1 subunit nuclear gene and of a fragment of exon-2 of the heat shock protein HSP26 gene were used to identify samples of individual adults and pooled cysts. Additionally, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis using the Na/K-ATPase marker and individual adults was used because of its greater power for detecting different alleles. Finally, the exon of the Na/K-ATPase a-1 subunit was sequenced in selected individuals to validate the results. All results indicated that there were parthenogenetic Artemia in the samples from the period 2000 to 2002. Our data do not provide evidence on the autochthonous or allochthonous nature of this population, although an anthropogenic origin seems most likely. The transitory character of the incidence of parthenogenetic Artemia can be linked to unusual environmental conditions in the lake around the turn of the century. The subsequent disappearance of the parthenogenetic population would then be due to the competition with the more productive A. franciscana population as conditions returned back to normal. A systematic genetic study of the GSL Artemia population is recommended as it may provide valuable complementary information about population changes undetected in traditional monitoring programmes.

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