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Deep-ocean contribution to sea level and energy budget not detectable over the past decade
Llovel, W.; Willis, J.K.; Landerer, F.W.; Fukumori, I. (2014). Deep-ocean contribution to sea level and energy budget not detectable over the past decade. Nat. Clim. Chang. 4(11): 1031–1035. hdl.handle.net/10.1038/nclimate2387
In: Nature Climate Change. Nature Publishing Group: London. ISSN 1758-678X, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keyword
    Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Llovel, W.
  • Willis, J.K.
  • Landerer, F.W.
  • Fukumori, I.

Abstract
    As the dominant reservoir of heat uptake in the climate system, the world’s oceans provide a critical measure of global climate change. Here, we infer deep-ocean warming in the context of global sea-level rise and Earth’s energy budget between January 2005 and December 2013. Direct measurements of ocean warming above 2,000 m depth explain about 32% of the observed annual rate of global mean sea-level rise. Over the entire water column, independent estimates of ocean warming yield a contribution of 0.77 ± 0.28 mm yr-1 in sea-level rise and agree with the upper-ocean estimate to within the estimated uncertainties. Accounting for additional possible systematic uncertainties, the deep ocean (below 2,000 m) contributes -0.13 ± 0.72 mm yr-1 to global sea-level rise and -0.08 ± 0.43 W m-2 to Earth’s energy balance. The net warming of the ocean implies an energy imbalance for the Earth of 0.64 ± 0.44 W m-2 from 2005 to 2013.

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