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Early stages of the encapsulated development of Nucella lapillus (Linnaeus) (Gastropoda, Muricidae)
Stöckmann-Bosbach, R. (1988). Early stages of the encapsulated development of Nucella lapillus (Linnaeus) (Gastropoda, Muricidae). J. Moll. Stud. 54(2): 181-196. hdl.handle.net/10.1093/mollus/54.2.181
In: Journal of Molluscan Studies. Oxford University Press: Reading. ISSN 0260-1230, more
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    Marine

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  • Stöckmann-Bosbach, R.

Abstract
    The intertidal muricid gastropod Nucella lapillus (Linnaeus) develops entirely within an egg capsule up to the juvenile stage. This study investigates how the embryos have adapted to the abundance of their own yolk (protolecith) and extraembryonic nutrients (nurse eggs, capsule fluid) during five stages of early organogenesisThe pretorsional preveliger uses protolecith and albumen as nutritive resources. The main portion of the protolecith is stored in the large unequal macro-mere 4D, which is interpreted to be an adaptation to the large content of its own yolk and persists beyond the ingestion stage. The transitory storage of protolecith makes the predominant resorption of the nutritive eggs possible. The stomodaeum develops early as an ectodermal invagination and opens into an anterior buccal part and a posterior oesophageal part. The radular sac is of early pretorsional origin. Some prospective endodermal structures (midgut and hindgut) first become apparent by their histological differentiationDuring ingestion the differentiation of midgut and cephalopodium is arrested. The extremely thin epithelium of the midgut surrounds the swallowed nurse eggsThe last stage, an early veliger, has developed all essential organs as rudiments, except the coelomic derivates and the pallia] organs. The hindgut opens by a proctodaeal invagination (anus). The embryo undergoes further torsional displacement

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