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Shell and glass beads from the Tombs of Kindoki, Mbanza Nsundi, Lower Congo
Verhaeghe, C.; Clist, B.-O.; Fontaine, C.; Karklins, K.; Bostoen, K.; De Clercq, W. (2014). Shell and glass beads from the Tombs of Kindoki, Mbanza Nsundi, Lower Congo. BEADS 26: 23-34
In: BEADS: Journal of the Society of Bead Researchers. Society of Bead Researchers: Portland, more
cover

Available in  Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 268525 [ OMA ]

Keyword
    Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Verhaeghe, C., more
  • Clist, B.-O.
  • Fontaine, C.
  • Karklins, K.
  • Bostoen, K.
  • De Clercq, W., more

Abstract
    The ancient Kingdom of Kongo originated in Central Africa in the 14th century. In the 15th century, the Portuguese organized tight contacts with the Bakongo. From then on European goods gained new significance in the local culture and even found their way into funerary rites. Among the most important grave goods in the Kingdom of Kongo were shell and glass beads. They occur in many tombs and symbolize wealth, status, or femininity. At the burial site of Kindoki, linked with the former capital of Kongo's Nsundi province, a great number of shell and glass beads were found together with symbols of power in tombs attributed to the first half of the 19th century. Determining the origin of these beads and their use in the Kongo Kingdom leads to interesting insights into the social and economic organization of the old Bakongo society, their beliefs, and the symbolic meaning of the beads.

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