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The state of the art of Xyalidae (Nematoda, Monhysterida) with reference to the Brazilian records
Venekey, V.; Gheller, P.F.; Maria, T.F.; Brustolin, M.C.; Kandratavicius, N.; Vieira, D.C.; Brito, S.; Souza, G.S. (2014). The state of the art of Xyalidae (Nematoda, Monhysterida) with reference to the Brazilian records. Mar. Biodiv. 44(3): 367-390.
In: Marine Biodiversity. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 1867-1616; e-ISSN 1867-1624, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

    Nematoda [WoRMS]; Xyalidae Chitwood, 1951 [WoRMS]
Author keywords
    Marine nematodes; Brazilian coast

Authors  Top 
  • Venekey, V.
  • Gheller, P.F.
  • Maria, T.F.
  • Brustolin, M.C.
  • Kandratavicius, N.
  • Vieira, D.C.
  • Brito, S.
  • Souza, G.S.

    In the current study we provide a reviewed list of valid genera and species of Xyalidae, a widespread family of mostly marine free-living nematodes. Comments are added about the historic background and taxonomic situation of the family, all valid genera and, when necessary, diagnostic characters are given. Additionally, information about distribution and geographical location of species recorded along the Brazilian coast is provided. Our review recognized 46 valid genera, 450 valid species and 73 descriptions without enough morphological information for identification (species inquerendae). Nearly 80 % of the species inquerendae belong to Daptonema and Theristus. To avoid homonymies, two Daptonema species were renamed, Daptonema biwaensis (Tsalolikhin, 2002) new name (former Mongolotheristus timoshkini) and Daptonema vietnamensis (Gagarin and Thu, 2008) new name (former D. curvatum sensu Gagarin and Thu, 2008). Cenolaimus sapeloensis is transferred to Xyala sapeloensis comb. nov. Along the Brazilian coast 28 genera and 41 species have been recorded. The species Elzalia floresi, Metadesmolaimus tersus, Paramonohystera stricta, Pseudosteineria scopae, Rhynchonema cemae, R. veronicae, Steineria ericia, S. marcorum, S. pavo, S. tripartita, Theristus acribus, T. flevensis, T. macroflevensis, T. pertenuis, T. stranus, Trichotheristus heterus, T. setosus and Zygonemella striata have the Brazilian coast as the type locality. Among all species, three occurred across three geographic regions, while the large majority was restricted to one. Xyalidae is typically encountered in oceanic sandy beaches, with only the species belonging to Daptonema, Theristus, Trichotheristus and Zygonemella being recorded in estuarine sediments. This observation suggests that the colonization of inland waters occurred multiple times along the evolutionary history.

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