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Implementation of European marine policy: New water quality targets for German Baltic waters
Schernewski, G.; Friedland, R.; Carstens, M.; Hirt, U.; Leujak, W.; Neumann, T.; Petenati, T.; Sagert, S.; Wasmund, N.; von Weber, M. (2015). Implementation of European marine policy: New water quality targets for German Baltic waters. Mar. Policy 51: 305–321. hdl.handle.net/10.1016/j.marpol.2014.09.002
In: Marine Policy. Pergamon: Guildford. ISSN 0308-597X, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

Keywords
    Targets; Thresholds; Marine
Author keywords
    Water Framework Directive; Baltic Sea Action Plan; Reference Conditions; Riverine Loads

Authors  Top 
  • Schernewski, G., more
  • Friedland, R.
  • Carstens, M.
  • Hirt, U.
  • Leujak, W.
  • Neumann, T.
  • Petenati, T.
  • Sagert, S.
  • Wasmund, N., more
  • von Weber, M.

Abstract
    A full re-calculation of Water Framework Directive reference and target concentrations for German coastal waters and the western Baltic Sea is presented, which includes a harmonization with HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) targets. Further, maximum allowable nutrient inputs (MAI) and target concentrations in rivers for the German Baltic catchments are suggested. For this purpose a spatially coupled, large scale and integrative modeling approach is used, which links the river basin flux model MONERIS to ERGOM-MOM, a three-dimensional ecosystem model of the Baltic Sea. The years around 1880 are considered as reference conditions reflecting a high ecological status and are reconstructed and simulated with the model system. Alternative approaches are briefly described, as well. For every WFD water body and the open sea, target concentrations for nitrogen and phosphorus compounds as well as chlorophyll a are provided by adding 50% to the reference concentrations. In general, the targets are less strict for coastal waters and slightly stricter for the sea (e.g. 1.2 mg/m³ chl.a summer average for the Bay of Mecklenburg), compared to current values. By taking into account the specifics of every water body, this approach overcomes the inconsistencies of earlier approaches. Our targets are well in agreement with the BSAP targets, but provide spatially refined and extended results. The full data are presented in Appendix A1 and A2.To reach the targets, German nitrogen inputs have to be reduced by 34%. Likely average maximum allowable concentrations in German Baltic rivers are between 2.6 and 3.1 mg N/l. However, the concrete value depends on the scenario and uncertainties with respect to atmospheric deposition. To our results, MAI according to the BSAP may be sufficient for the open sea, but are not sufficient to reach a good WFD status in German coastal waters.

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