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Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses
Essington, T.E.; Moriarty, P.E.; Froehlich, H.E.; Hodgson, E.E.; Koehn, L.E.; Oken, K.L.; Siple, M.C.; Stawitz, C.C. (2015). Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(21): 6648-6652.
In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. The Academy: Washington, D.C.. ISSN 0027-8424, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

Author keywords
    marine conservation; population collapse; fisheries; ecosystem-basedmanagement

Authors  Top 
  • Essington, T.E.
  • Moriarty, P.E.
  • Froehlich, H.E.
  • Hodgson, E.E.
  • Koehn, L.E.
  • Oken, K.L.
  • Siple, M.C.
  • Stawitz, C.C.

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches.

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