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Phylogeographical analyses of shellfish viruses: inferring a geographical origin for ostreid herpesviruses OsHV-1 (Malacoherpesviridae)
Mineur, F.; Provan, J; Arnott, G (2015). Phylogeographical analyses of shellfish viruses: inferring a geographical origin for ostreid herpesviruses OsHV-1 (Malacoherpesviridae). Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 162(1): 181-192. dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00227-014-2566-8
In: Marine Biology. Springer: Heidelberg; Berlin. ISSN 0025-3162, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 279033 [ OMA ]

Keywords
    Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) [WoRMS]; Malacoherpesviridae [WoRMS]; Marine

Authors  Top 
  • Mineur, F., more
  • Provan, J
  • Arnott, G

Abstract
    Mortality episodes have regularly been affecting the shellfish industry throughout its history. Some of these mortalities, especially in the oyster industry, have been attributed to herpesviruses. Purification of viral particles and molecular characterization have led to the development of routine monitoring, as well as improved taxonomic classification. Ostreid herpesviruses (Malacoherpesviridae), mostly affecting Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas, have been sporadically recorded in the French oyster industry since the early 1990s (OsHV-1 ‘reference’). From 2008, a new variant of ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV-1 µVar) has emerged and seriously impacted oyster production in France and other European countries. Consequently, the presence of ostreid herpesviruses has been monitored in different oyster producing areas around the world. The present study compiles molecular data that are available from survey efforts and takes a biogeographical approach, in order to infer an origin for ostreid herpesviruses. The highest genotype diversity was found in East Asia, despite a lower survey effort in that area than in Europe. Genotype network analyses show that both populations of ostreid herpesviruses present in Europe (OsHV-1 ‘reference’ and OsHV-1 µVar) are closely related to genotypes recorded in Asia. Moreover, ostreid herpesviruses have been detected in wild and symptom-free populations of various Asian native Crassostrea species. In the rest of the world, ostreid herpesvirus genotypes were recorded from cultivated C. gigas, and mostly associated with mortality episodes. Results of this study are therefore highly suggestive of an Asian origin for these viruses, which can be pathogenic under farming conditions. It also highlights the risks of European stock improvements, by means of overseas shellfish imports.

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