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Residue levels of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in processed animal by-products used in Atlantic salmon feeds and their long-term carry-over to the edible part of the fish
Berntssen, G; Valdersnes, S; Lunestad, T; Hatlen, B; Alm, M.; Waagbo, R; Buttle, L (2014). Residue levels of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in processed animal by-products used in Atlantic salmon feeds and their long-term carry-over to the edible part of the fish. Aquacult. Nutr. 20(6): 712-721. dx.doi.org/10.1111/anu.12121
In: Aquaculture Nutrition. Blackwell Science: Oxford. ISSN 1353-5773, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 279025 [ OMA ]

Keywords
    Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758 [WoRMS]; Marine
Author keywords
    animal by-products; antibacterials; carry-over model; farmed fish;toxicokinetics

Authors  Top 
  • Berntssen, G
  • Valdersnes, S
  • Lunestad, T
  • Hatlen, B
  • Alm, M.
  • Waagbo, R
  • Buttle, L

Abstract
    Residue levels of the antibacterials enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were analysed in 15 commercially relevant animal by-products (ABPs). Enrofloxacin was detected in all ABPs, and ciprofloxacin was detected in 11 of 15 ABP samples. Feed to muscle and skin carry –over of low background enro- and ciprofloxacin levels were assessed by applying a simple toxicokinetic model. The muscle and skin uptake and elimination rates were established in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed enrofloxacin enriched diets (100 µg kg-1 ‘low’ and 4000 µg kg-1 ‘high’) in triplicate for 41 days followed by a 90 days depuration period. The terminal half-lives were 17 ± 0.4 and 18 ± 0.7 days, and uptake rates were 9.3 ± 3.3 and 11 ± 3.1 (day-1) for the ‘low’ and ‘high’ groups, respectively. Only fish fed high background levels had quantifiable levels of the metabolite ciprofloxacin with a formation of 0.25 ± 0.01% day-1. The toxicokinetic carry-over model predicted muscle and skin steady state levels of 1.8 µg kg-1 when fed theoretically high enrofloxacin levels (158 µg kg-1), which is below the EU limit of 100 µg kg-1 for enrofloxacin in finfish food products. The antibacterial residue levels could however be detected in EU food surveillance programmes.

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