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Hepatotoxicity in rats induced by the poisonous dreamfish (Sarpa salpa)
Bellassoued, K; Makni-Ayadi, F; Van Pelt, J.; Elfeki, A (2014). Hepatotoxicity in rats induced by the poisonous dreamfish (Sarpa salpa). Toxicol. Mech. Methods 24(2): 151-160. dx.doi.org/10.3109/15376516.2013.869781
In: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods. Informa Healthcare: London. ISSN 1537-6516, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus, 1758) [WoRMS]; Marine; Brackish water
Author keywords
    Antioxidant status; ciguatoxins; hepatotoxicity; histological studies;rats; S. salpa

Authors  Top 
  • Bellassoued, K
  • Makni-Ayadi, F
  • Van Pelt, J.
  • Elfeki, A

Abstract
    Aims: The present study was aimed to assess the cytotoxic effects of not-yet identified compounds present in organ extracts of Sarpa salpa, collected in autumn, the period with a peak in health problems.

    Methods: The toxicity was assessed by mouse bioassay of extract of the fish’s organs. Wistar rats received daily extracts of different organs of S. salpa by gastric gavage for 7?d (0.3?ml of extract/100?g body weight, BW). The dose of tissue extracts of viscera, liver, brain and flesh of S. salpa administered to rats were as follows: 17.2, 31.3, 205, 266?mg/100g BW, respectively. No deaths occurred during the period of treatment.

    Results: The lethal dose (LD50%) determined for the crude ciguatoxin (neurotoxins) extracts of viscera, liver, brain and flesh of S. salpa were as follows: 1.2, 2.2, 14.4, 18.6?g/kg mouse, respectively. Changes in locomotor activity during the first 2?h and failure breathing and no evident signs of gastrointestinal problems were recorded. We observed: (1) Induction of oxidative stress, indicated by an increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in groups that received extracts of liver (+490%) or viscera (+592%). Accompanied by a significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GPx) in liver tissue by 15%, 17%, 18% (LT: animals receiving liver extracts) and by 19%, 22%, 22% (VT: animals receiving viscera extracts), respectively. In contrast the administration of extracts of flesh and brain induced an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GPx) in liver tissue by 15%, 19%, 15% (FT: flesh extract) and 18%, 55%, 55% (BT: brain extract), respectively; (2) A significant increase in total metallothionein levels in liver tissue was recorded in (FT), (BT), (LT) and (VT) by 55%, 88%, 255% and 277%, respectively, (3) The histological findings confirmed the biochemical results.

    Conclusions: Liver and especially visceral part of S. salpa presented toxicity, which clearly indicates the danger of using this fish as food.


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