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Evolutionary implications of swimming behaviour in meiobenthic copepods
Hicks, G.R.F. (1988). Evolutionary implications of swimming behaviour in meiobenthic copepods, in: Boxshall, G.A. et al. (Ed.) Biology of copepods: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Copepoda. Developments in Hydrobiology, 47: pp. 497-504. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/978-94-009-3103-9_56
In: Boxshall, G.A.; Schminke, H.K. (Ed.) (1988). Biology of copepods: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Copepoda. Developments in Hydrobiology, 47. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht. ISBN 90-6193-654-3. XII, 639 pp., more
In: Dumont, H.J. (Ed.) Developments in Hydrobiology. Kluwer Academic/Springer: The Hague; London; Boston; Dordrecht. ISSN 0167-8418, more

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Keywords
    Evolution; Experiments; Morphology; Copepoda [WoRMS]; Marine
Author keywords
    Swimming behaviour

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  • Hicks, G.R.F.

Abstract
    Body morphology is said to be the all important factor in determining swimming prowess in copepods. Fusion and differentiation of the body (tagmosis) is coupled with advance into the pelagic realm of the Gymnoplea and is thought, by the provision of a rigid thoracic tagma, to promote swimming efficiency. Thus pelagic copepods are believed to be secondarily derived from bottom dwelling predecessors. Experimental evidence is presented to show that the majority of bottom dwelling harpacticoid families, including the most primitive and the most advanced, have representatives that undergo active sustained swimming movements. Such a widespread occurrence is indicative of a conservative evolutionary trait. This primitive behaviour is linked to precopulatory association which takes place necessarily in the water column; it is a feature retained by representatives of all copepod orders. The implication of cephalic appendage vibration (feeding currents) is the essential feature in the swimming success of the Gymnoplea; planktonic efficiency in these is suggested to have evolved coincident with, rather than because of increased tagmosis.

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