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Mechanics and neuromorphology of feeding in amphibians
Roth, G.; Nishikawa, K.C.; Wake, D.B.; Dicke, U.; Matsushima, T. (1990). Mechanics and neuromorphology of feeding in amphibians. Neth. J. Zool. 40(1-2): 115-135
In: Netherlands Journal of Zoology. E.J. Brill: Leiden. ISSN 0028-2960, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Roth, G.
  • Nishikawa, K.C.
  • Wake, D.B.
  • Dicke, U.
  • Matsushima, T.

    Salamanders and frogs exhibit strong similarities in their habitats, prey prefernces and foraging strategies. Despite these similarities, they differ profoundly in the structure and function of the adult feeding apparatus, and in the participation of cranial and spinal nerves and nuclei in the control of feeding behavior. In frogs, the hyolingual skeleton plays no role in tongue protection. Only the tongue is projected out of the mouth under the control of the nn. Trigeminus (tongue protraction) and hypoglossus (tongue protaction and retraction). In all salamanders, feeding is based on forward movement of hyolingual apparatus, which is folded into a slender, farreaching projectile in the most highly derived salamanders. Tongue protraction is controlled by nn. Glossophryngeus and vagus, and tongue retraction is controlled by the first and second spinal nerves. All muscles related to feeding are activated sequentally in frogs and simultaneously in salamanders. While the descending pathways to the brainstem and cervical spinal motor nuclei are similar in frogs and salamanders, difference in muscle function and activation pattern imply that the premotor reticular formation is also different. In frog tadpoles and salamander larvae, the hyobranchial apparatus plays different roles in feeding and breathing. This has led to differential loss, acquisition and change of function of musculoskeletal elements during the ontogeny and phylogeny of the adult feeding apparatus in frogs and salamanders. These differnces in the muscoloskeletal periphery imply that a reorganization at or above the level of the reticular formation is likely to have occurred in frogs, but not in salamander.

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