|Control of head morphogenesis in an invertebrate asexually produced larva-like bud (Cassiopea andromeda; Cnidaria: Scyphozoa)|Thieme, C.; Hofmann, D.K. (2003). Control of head morphogenesis in an invertebrate asexually produced larva-like bud (Cassiopea andromeda; Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Dev. Genes Evol. 213(3): 127-133. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s00427-003-0300-5
In: Development, Genes and Evolution. Springer: Berlin; Heidelberg. ISSN 0949-944X, more
Metamorphosis; Cassiopea Péron & Lesueur, 1810 [WoRMS]; Marine
Head formation; Morphogenetic signal; Metamorphosis; PKC
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Scyphopolyps of Cassiopea andromeda propagate asexually by forming larva-like buds which separate from the parent in a developmentally quiescent state. These buds metamorphose into sessile polyps when exposed to specific biogenic, chemical inducers. Morphogenesis of transversely dissected buds indicates the presence of pattern-determining signals; whereas the basal bud fragments may still form a complete scyphistoma the apical bud fragments develop spontaneously in the absence of an inducer into a polyp head without stalk and foot. Based on these findings Neumann (dissertation, Cologne University, 1980) postulated a head-inhibiting signal which is released at the basal pole and inhibits head formation at the apical end. Contrary to this hypothesis dissection itself might induce the development of head structures. The present study deals with the control of polyp head formation in C. andromeda. It concentrates on two points, namely the postulated head inhibitor and the involvement of compounds known to act during metamorphosis (the enzyme protein kinase C and the specific metamorphosis inducer Z-GPGGPA). We found that compared to intact buds and apical bud fragments transversely incised buds reached an intermediate stage of head development. This confirms Neumann's hypothesis. Consequently we focused on the mode of action and the chemical nature of the head-inhibiting signal in C. andromeda. Our results indicate that the head inhibitor may be included in one of six pooled fractions isolated from bud homogenate via gel filtration on a Sephadex G-50 column. The inhibitor is supposed to be water-soluble and to have a molecular weight of 850–1,500 Da. Furthermore we prove that head formation is not promoted by the metamorphosis-inducer Z-GPGGPA but is prevented by the inhibitors psychosine, chelerythrine and RO-32–0432 showing the involvement of protein kinase C in this process.