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Trends in the diversity, distribution and life history strategy of Arctic Hydrozoa (Cnidaria)
Ronowicz, M.; Kuklinski, P.; Mapstone, G.M. (2015). Trends in the diversity, distribution and life history strategy of Arctic Hydrozoa (Cnidaria). PLoS One 10(3): e0120204. hdl.handle.net/10.1371/journal.pone.0120204
In: PLoS One. Public Library of Science: San Francisco. ISSN 1932-6203, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Ronowicz, M., more
  • Kuklinski, P.
  • Mapstone, G.M., more

Abstract
    This is the first attempt to compile a comprehensive and updated species list for Hydrozoa in the Arctic, encompassing both hydroid and medusa stages and including Siphonophorae. We address the hypothesis that the presence of a pelagic stage (holo- or meroplanktonic) was not necessary to successfully recolonize the Arctic by Hydrozoa after the Last Glacial Maximum. Presence-absence data of Hydrozoa in the Arctic were prepared on the basis of historical and present-day literature. The Arctic was divided into ecoregions. Species were grouped into distributional categories according to their worldwide occurrences. Each species was classified according to life history strategy. The similarity of species composition among regions was calculated with the Bray-Curtis index. Average and variation in taxonomic distinctness were used to measure diversity at the taxonomic level. A total of 268 species were recorded. Arctic-boreal species were the most common and dominated each studied region. Nineteen percent of species were restricted to the Arctic. There was a predominance of benthic species over holo- and meroplanktonic species. Arctic, Arctic-Boreal and Boreal species were mostly benthic, while widely distributed species more frequently possessed a pelagic stage. Our results support hypothesis that the presence of a pelagic stage (holo- or meroplanktonic) was not necessary to successfully recolonize the Arctic. The predominance of benthic Hydrozoa suggests that the Arctic could have been colonised after the Last Glacial Maximum by hydroids rafting on floating substrata or recolonising from glacial refugia.

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